What is cataract?
Cataracts, also called curtains or aksu in the colloquial language, are blurred or dense areas formed in the lens of the eye. The lens of the eye is behind the iris and pupil. Its task is to create an image on the retina, which covers the inner surface of the back of the eye and is sensitive to light.
The loss of transparency of the lens located just behind the pupil is called cataract.
When a cataract occurs, the chemical composition of the lens also changes. However, the reasons for this chemical change are not yet fully known. Cataract in old age is the most well-known. However, this type of cataract is also seen at the age of fifty or even younger. In addition, cataracts can occur with diabetes, other system diseases, drugs and eye injuries. Babies may be born with cataracts, and they may also develop cataracts in the first years of their lives.
A cataract affecting vision:
1) By size
3) It depends on where it occurs in the lens.
Complaints that the patient may notice may be:
Foggy, hazy, blurred vision, sometimes double vision; however, this usually disappears as the cataract progresses.
The need for frequent replacement of eyeglass lenses arises. However, when the cataract exceeds a certain point, glass replacement cannot improve vision.
Feeling like there is a film on the eyes, seeing as if you are looking through a tulle or a waterfall… A person with cataracts blinks their eyes frequently to see better.
Change in the color of the pupil, which is usually black. When examining the eye, the pupil may appear gray, yellow or white, but these changes may not always be noticeable.
Light problems, such as driving at night, become increasingly difficult because the hazy part of the lens scatters oncoming headlight beams, causing them to appear double or dazzled. Likewise, anyone with cataracts complains of not getting enough light while reading or doing close work.
“second opinion”: Some people have temporary reading relief when their cataract reaches a certain level. As the cataract develops, vision begins to deteriorate again. None of these symptoms prove that the person has a cataract, or that the cataract should be removed. However, a person with any of these symptoms should definitely consult an ophthalmologist.
Who should have cataract surgery? When should you have cataract surgery?
Cataract should be surgically removed when the visual impairment progresses to such an extent that it disrupts the daily life of the person. If the cataract has fully matured and has become opaque like ground glass, it should be treated more urgently. It is possible for a mature cataract to swell and even disperse within the eye. Such changes carry the danger of permanent loss of vision.
In congenital cataracts, surgery should be performed immediately in all cases where vision is obstructed. Apart from this, cases requiring urgent cataract surgery are very rare. Let’s not forget that cataracts often progress after they start. But the pace of progress is usually slow and we cannot predict it in advance. The timing of cataract surgery should be determined by the patient. The duty of the physician is to determine how much of the patient’s vision complaints are due to cataracts and to inform the patient.
A taxi driver who has to use his car even at night and an elderly person who doesn’t leave their house very often cannot be equally eager for early surgery.
Visual acuity is not the only criterion for the necessity of cataract surgery. Many patients may not complain of poor visual acuity. Or they report that they are very uncomfortable in different light conditions despite their good visual clarity. While there are patients who say that they see less on the street on sunny days, there are also many patients who complain that car headlights and street lamps cause excessive glare and reflection and darken their world at night. One of the visual complaints of cataract is loss of contrast between gray tone and colors. Since this process takes a long time, the patient may not perceive this change in bilateral cataracts. Failure to notice bumps or potholes can cause them to have an accident while descending stairs or jumping thresholds. The ophthalmologist warns his patients in this direction and asks the patient to make a decision.